How Insulin and Glucagon Regulate Blood Sugar: A Comprehensive Overview

Insulin and glucagon are two important hormones that regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body. 

They work together to keep blood glucose levels within a restricted and safe range. 

Insulin is secreted by pancreatic beta cells in reaction to increased blood sugar levels, typically after a meal when glucose levels rise.

Insulin functions as a "storage" hormone, facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells, especially in the liver, muscle, and fat tissues. 

Allows glucose to enter cells by promoting the migration of glucose transporters (GLUT-4) to the cell surface.

Increases the conversion of glucose into glycogen (glycogenesis) in the liver and muscles, allowing surplus glucose to be stored for future energy demands.

Inhibits the breakdown of stored glycogen in the liver (glycogenolysis). Suppresses the liver's synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis).

Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells when blood sugar levels are low, generally between meals or during times of fasting or physical activity.

Glucagon functions as a "mobilizing" hormone, increasing blood sugar levels by triggering numerous processes:

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