Metformin acts by increasing insulin sensitivity, decreasing liver glucose synthesis, and slowing glucose absorption in the intestines.
Sulfonylureas act by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Glipizide, Glyburide, and Glimepiride are common brand names.
DPP-4 inhibitors operate by boosting the body's own ability to decrease blood sugar by increasing levels of incretins, substances that promote insulin secretion.
GLP-1 receptor agonists act by mimicking the effects of incretins, boosting insulin secretion, delaying digestion, and decreasing appetite.
SGLT2 inhibitors operate by blocking glucose reabsorption by the kidneys, resulting in increased glucose excretion in the urine.
TZDs operate by increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle and fat tissues. Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone are common brand names.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reduce carbohydrate digestion, which helps to minimize blood sugar rises after meals.
Insulin is a hormone that lowers blood sugar by promoting glucose uptake into cells. Insulin is classified into four types: rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediate-acting, and long-acting.
Considerations: Insulin is frequently used when other drugs fail to manage blood sugar levels.
It can be administered through injections or insulin pumps.
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